Gravity has always proven a serious problem for my brain. I am 100% sure that the phenomena does exist. Throw any object you like up into the air, or drop anything off of a mountain, or a building, and it will drop down. What goes up truly must come down! I am also 100% sure I am not alone in my belief in gravity, or; at least I hope that statement is true. So, this belief in Gravity will serve as the platform for my hypothesis. We know it exists, it is the “What” it is that is the sticking point for the scientific community. I am aware of the popular hypothesis of the existence of a Graviton. I cannot say that the Graviton does not exist, although I do not personally believe in its existence myself. I say this because, I have a difficult time conceiving of a particle interacting with matter, in such a way that it attracts one object to another. The notion that this particle somehow emanates from one body of matter, interacts with a nearby body of matter; and then somehow manages to induce the gravitational effect simply does not sit well with me. That does not mean that there is not a suitable explanation for gravity. A “smoking gun” so to speak. I believe the smoking gun is a force that we are already familiar with, and that Gravity is only a perceived effect of this known force. The force I speak of is Magnetism.
Gravity (A magnetic affect)
I would like very much to believe in Einstein’s vision of Gravity. A sphere warping the space time fabric was a genius concept and did seem to make sense at the time. As brilliant as the man was, “I stand on his shoulders” that does not mean there weren’t some misconceptions that needed to be fixed. One major misconception was that “Time” was somehow a thing rather than a tool. Along with this misconception was “Space”, that it was somehow weaved together with time to form “Space Time”. A nice visualization that points out how clever the human mind can be. George Lucas conceived of Star Wars, but I am not holding my breath on meeting Luke Skywalker or Han Solo. Space does exist, but it is just that, space. Space is; “An area that is or is not occupied by matter”. A vacuum is simply space with nothing in it. I should say very little, because there is no such thing as a perfect vacuum. A vacuum would exist anywhere there is an absence of matter. Time is nothing more than our concept of motion. It is a tool we use to allow our minds to comprehend motion in the universe. Events take place, and sometimes we like to be able to measure or predict certain events. Math and a system of time are very useful tools to help us better understand our existence. Unfortunately space and time are not physical things that can be weaved together into a Space/Time fabric. A more accurate depiction of the relationship between space and the “concept of time” is a ball in a room. Imagine this room with nothing else in it but a ball. The room represents space and the ball represents time. The room contains the ball that is in motion, that motion can be measured… hence time in space.
Another interesting concept, but not as accurate as some would believe; is that a planet’s warping of this space/time fabric is what is responsible for gravity. An object approaches a planet and the path it takes is a falling inward, following the curvature caused by the warping of space/time. This may conceptually seem to hold true with a 3D object sitting on a 2D plane, but if we examine this concept a little closer than we find some problems. If this object were to keep falling, due to the warping of the S/T fabric then we can visualize it following the curvature of bowl in the 2D plane. The object would eventually come to rest around the pole of the planet. The object itself would never actually fall into the planet, rather it would fall into the bowl where it would come to rest. The end result would be a planet with a bunch of space debris sitting above its southern pole. Note: I chose southern pole for the sake of argument. We can orientate this any way you like, it is the end result that is important here. Let us extrapolate on this concept further by considering a 3D object sitting in 3D space. The fabric of S/T occupying the X,Y,Z dimensions we are familiar with. We still would get the same result. Only this time the planet would have objects orbiting it endlessly or remaining stationary as it comes to rest relative to its position to the planet. This would in effect, over time, create a shell of debris around the planet. Clearly this has not solved our problem of gravity. We know from experience that objects fall into planets as well as orbit it. We also know that gravity is related to the mass a celestial body contains. If Einstein’s concept of gravity were true than I assure you, planets would never have know the horror of being struck by a comet or an asteroid. These objects simply should not have made it to the planet surface based upon the S/T fabric concept. Surely, something else must be to blame.
So, what is to blame for an object falling to the ground? What is responsible for this Action at a distance? Let us look at what we do know and then take it from there. We know the following of gravity;
1) Objects on earth fall at the same rate, regardless of mass (We will assume this holds true for all other celestial bodies)
2) Objects, regardless of size, exhibit a gravitational force
3) Objects fall and objects orbit
4) There is a definable relationship between matter and the strength of gravity (more mass = stronger gravity)
5) Anti-Gravity is not known to exist naturally, does not exclude artificially.
Knowing the above will help us to move forward and consider the possible culprits for the phenomena of Gravity. Before we do this, I would like to point out that I left the possibility for anti gravity; because technically it already exists. In order to achieve a permanent anti gravity field will require unknown ingenuity. Temporarily achieving anti gravity happens everyday. Every time a plane takes off, the space shuttle lifts off, a child jumps on a trampoline, or an NBA star dunks a basket ball; all of these actions offer us glimpses of anti- gravity. The key to these events is energy. Any amount of energy that goes into an object, up until the gravity barrier is met leaves us where we are, but once we cross the gravity barrier we have achieved anti-gravity. The key is applying enough energy to overcome the force of gravity on an object. For the plane, it achieves anti-gravity through lift. A glider uses air currents as it cuts through an ocean of gases. A prop plane relies upon propellers to pull it through an ocean of gases until a point is reached where the lift provided by the wings is achieved. At the very moment the prop plane lifts off of the ground the gravity barrier has been breached. Enough energy is now being provided to allow the plane to overcome gravity and enter an anti-gravity state. Yes, gravity is still acting upon the plane, but the fact that it does not fall is anti-gravity. It is an equal and opposite force that is proportional to the energy applied to the object defying gravity. The same goes for a jet engine. A jet planes lift is provided by its powerful jet engines. Energy is applied to the system until the jet takes off. The same can be said for a kid jumping on a trampoline, an arrow flying upward from a bow, a bullet, you name it. If it goes up, it must come down, but as long as it is going up it is defying gravity. So, in a sense anti-gravity is more common than we think. What we are really after when we speak of anti-gravity is a way to maintain anti-gravity indefinitely. We may be able to engineer this feat someday, but I am fairly certain that we will never find anti-gravity existing in the natural world. The very nature of gravity will not allow it. (See “On Anti Gravity” for more information on AG at the end of this paper)
If a bowling ball and a baseball are dropped at the same time they fall at the same rate. This tells us that the mass of these two objects is feeling a constant form of gravity. Why is this? It would be nice if we could drop Jupiter and the earth towards a bowling ball to see what would happen. The point being that when dealing with any object falling on a planet you have to look at the size of each object in relation to the other. The size of the bowling ball relative to the baseball is really not the much different. Especially when you consider the size of both relative to the planet they are falling towards. The mass of the baseball and the bowling ball is minuscule compared to the earth. The same can be said for any object falling on any planet. This tells us that the relationship between small amounts of matter vs larger amounts of matter will always lead to the larger body having the final say. Of course the more matter you have the greater the final say. The earth would not have much to say up against the sun, just as the sun would be bullied by a super massive black holes immense gravity. The sun may be larger, but the mass is the key.
Action at a distance really is something to puzzle over. The thought that two objects with no interaction whatsoever could still effect one another; is a euphoric thought, almost like magic. Although I have seen David Copperfield make the statue of Liberty disappear, I knew it was nothing more than figuring out how he did it. That is all we have to do with gravity, figure out how it does what it does. One concept I came up with is a reverse wave. Perhaps a field emanates from every object outward in all directions in the form of a reverse wave. It is a standing wave that moves towards the center of a mass of matter. It is a fun concept, but with some major problems. The larges being that if this were true than we would most certainly witness objects falling to earth in a new light. This is assuming that an object would ride the wave rather than having the wave pass through the object. In this visualization, the object is being pulled towards the planet by the wave action pulling the object towards the planet. Think of a ball on a rigid standing wave, push on the wave and the ball will move along the wave. This gravity wave would be responsible for delivering objects to their final resting place. This is an interesting concept, but it is only a concept. I do not believe in this scenario, but when it first occurred to me I enjoyed the thought of it. Of course the more I thought on it the more I knew it could not to be true. I could not get my mind around the reverse wave concept. Even if the standing wave grows as the mass of a celestial body grows, I still can’t see how a reverse wave would not just collapse into itself and disappear all together. There are just too many issues with this hypothesis that I will not proceed any farther in pointing out its flaws. It does serve to show us how a concept can be without actually being the truth of the matter.
The smoking gun we need has to meet the following criteria. It has to be able to explain how gravity is related to mass. It has to explain why objects of different masses can fall towards a planet at the same rate, this rate varies for planets of different masses. A baseball and a bowling ball will fall at the same rate on earth and at the same rate on Jupiter, but that same rate is different based upon the planet the experiment is taking place on. I have thought about this at great lengths and the only force that I know of that can account for what we know about gravity is magnetism. My hypothesis is that Gravity is actually a manifestation of the magnetic force. In order for this to be true I believe that one force has to be slightly greater than the other. Since objects fall to earth rather than the opposite, I hypothesize that the attractive force is greater than the repulsive force.
Objects are composed of molecules that are in turn composed of particles. These particles consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The neutrons are neutral and therefor are not active in the effects of gravity. What is responsible for gravity are the protons and electrons. Protons have positive charge and electrons have negative charge. Opposites attract and like charges repel one another. Where the effect of gravity comes into play is what I refer to as “Sum Total” charge. Sum Total charge simply refers to taking every single proton and every single electron that is contained within the planet earth and adding them up separately. Then consider the same for the protons and electrons contained within a person or a car, building, etc. Obviously the protons and electrons contained within the earth far outnumber any of the same contained within any object on the face of the earth. What gravity is, is the effect of all of the protons in my body feeling the effects of all of the electrons contained within the earth as well as all of the electrons in my body feeling the effects of all of the protons contained within the earth. Since the attractive force is slightly stronger than the repulsive force, we perceive this as gravity. All objects on the earth remain on the earth and any object regardless of size will fall to the earth at the same rate. The main rule to keep in mind with this hypothesis is that objects of similar size and mass experience less gravity towards one another. This simply means that objects of similar mass’s protons and electrons cancel each other out al though not entirely. Since the attractive force is slightly stronger than the repulsive force than there will always be a slight attraction between the two similar masses. Objects with greatly differing masses, such as a baseball and the earth; the baseball will feel an intense attractive force. The earth will attract the baseball like a giant magnet and hold it tightly to its surface.
One final thing to consider is how objects orbit one another without coming together. Examples would be the planets in our solar system, or all of the solar systems and stars in our galaxy. It is easy to imagine the solar system in its earliest beginnings. Areas of greater mass would begin to form as the disk of material coelessed into our solar system. The greatest concentration of mass was where our sun formed with the thinner and less dense areas towards the outer disk. Within this disk, matter came together to form regions of greater mass. Over time these regions of greater mass duked it out over the material that remained until our planets were formed. An easy way to imagine this process would be to take each planet in our solar system and smear them out into a ring around the sun. This region would have represented the region of greatest gravity. The empty spaces between the rings was where loose matter once was, but was pulled into each ring to form the planets. This of course was not how it happened in a literal sense, but helps us to imagine how gravity worked to form the solar system we live in today. All of the planets orbiting the sun in a tug of war with one another. All of these objects are similar in gravitational influence to one another relative to a baseball and the earth. What this means is that even though the planets feel each others influence they maintain their orbits around the sun. The sun contains the greatest mass relative to the planets, but the planets are far enough away that they will not be pulled into the sun.
Gravity simply has to be one of the forces that we are already familiar with. I cannot conceive of gravity being a particle that is somehow able to cause gravity. Action at a distance is a tricky thing to conceive of and the only force we know of capable of this is magnetism. We know how magnetism works, so there is no mystery. Why spend all of our time trying to attribute gravity to a graviton when the answer could be so much simpler? Laws at the atomic level dictate how molecules interact based on charge. I believe that planets, galaxies, black holes, you name it; also are dictated my these same forces. The only difference is that things on the planetary scale are a bit more complicated. The reason being is that we are not trying to figure out the interaction between a handful of protons and electrons. Now we are trying to figure out the interaction between a planet full of protons and electrons relative to another object with protons and electrons. How these interactions work on a planetary scale need to be figured out. Perhaps it already has. We have mathematical equations for gravity so now it just may be a matter of filling in the blanks. Gravity is nothing more than the manifestation of magnetism on a planetary scale. Not to be confused with our planetary magnetic field. This is caused by the molten outer core rotating around a solid iron nickel core. That is the common held belief and one that I subscribe to. Our earth is composed of protons and electrons which are responsible for its gravity. The same goes for all other objects in our known universe.
On Anti Gravity (AG)
This is more of a realization that I made while writing my hypothesis on Gravity. Anti Gravity is way more common than is currently believed. A sustained anti gravity field is what science is truly after, and this could be achieved. Simply use nuclear reactor or some other energy source that can supply the AG machine with a couple thousand years worth of energy. That is about as close to a permanent AG field we will ever be able to generate. The key to AG is energy! Unless we find naturally occurring AG on another planet, (we won’t) I highly doubt that a permanent field will be found outside of an artificially generated one. As far as AG in our every day lives, it occurred to me that every time I lift a cup or any other object skyward, that is anti-gravity. My arm is supplying the energy, my arm got this energy from the food I ate, allowing me to transfer that energy to my muscles and lift the object. I refer to this as mechanical AG. Energy is not being applied directly to the object that is being lifted, rather my arm is receiving the energy to allow me to mechanically lift the object skyward. There is energy transfer between my hand and the object, but this is not related to the AG event itself. Applied Energy AG includes planes, helicopters, rockets, and the space shuttle. Fuel supplies the energy to achieve lift ( in the case of planes and choppers) or energy is supplied to achieve thrust in the case of rockets and the space shuttle.
Gravity is a force that holds us firmly to the earth. Energy is applied to an AG system until the Gravity threshold is breached and the object achieves AG or (Flight). The Gravity threshold is simply the point at which enough energy is available to allow an object to overcome the force of gravity. Planes and helicopters have help in the form of lift, and this is a two method form of AG. Method one, energy is applied and method two, lift is achieved. The process is Acceleration -> Lift -> Anti Gravity. Some would point out that a chopper does not need acceleration, this is not true. The acceleration comes from the act of applying energy to the chopper blades. Once the blades are up to speed (acceleration) then lift is achieved. Presto, Anti Gravity.
There is only one naturally occurring form of mechanical AG. Just look to the skies or in a tree the next time you are outside. If you spot a bird, there you have it. Birds take in energy in the form of food and then use that energy to achieve lift via the flapping of their wings. Other organisms fly of course such as bats, and insects. I almost forgot to mention those. Another key point to keep in mind is that our atmosphere helps us to achieve lift in the applied energy scenario. We may not see the air but we know it is there. Our atmosphere can be thought of as another ocean. Instead of water it is filled with gas. Fixed and moving wings allow us to fly by utilizing this sea of air all around us. Without an atmosphere, birds would not be going anywhere either. Our atmosphere plays a key role when it comes to planes, helicopters, and birds achieving flight. This is not so for rocket propulsion. Energy is used to induce motion in an exact direction. No lift is involved. This is why our space shuttle and rockets can achieve motion in space. Stick a prop plane in space or a helicopter and get their propellers moving at any speed you like. You will not go anywhere. This is because there is nothing in space for the propeller to pull through. Another good example of mechanical energy helping you to achieve anti gravity is a swimmer. Take a ship out into the middle of the Atlantic and jump over board. If you swim or tread water then you are using your bodies energy to achieve mechanical AG. Stop swimming and you will float thanks to the air in your lungs, but you won’t stay afloat forever. Essentially you are flying when you swim. You are hundreds or thousands of feet above the ground. Instead of being suspended in a sea of gas you are suspended in a sea of water. If your lungs fill with water then gravity will take over and you will fall to the ground or in this case, the ocean floor.
Before I end this I need to address Hot air balloons, and balloons. The same concept applies here. Warm air rises and that is all a hot air balloon taps. Energy is applied to the air in the form of fire and the warm air is trapped by the balloon. Since warm air is lighter than cooler air, the balloon goes up. It will not go up forever though, it will just move up above the cooler air. It will not escape the earths gravity. Gravity is not the only force at work here. It is important to keep in mind the interaction of energy and gases contained within our atmosphere. Helium will make a balloon rise because helium is a lighter gas. If it was not for variances in temperature our atmosphere would essentially layer itself with the denser gases on the bottom and the lighter ones above. Since our atmosphere is constantly experiences warming and cooling it stays mixed up for us.
So, it turns out that Anti Gravity is a much more simple concept than previously thought. Turns out that most of us have either experienced anti gravity or caused anti gravity on a daily basis. What some scientists hope to achieve will never be achieved. No machine will ever be created that can sustain permanent AG without someone making sure the fuel source is constantly replenished. I cannot say that there may not be a way to synthetically engineer a material that would allow us to achieve anti gravity simply based upon the nature of the synthetic material. The fact remains that in order to achieve AG indefinitely we will have to engineer it.
Update: I hope the above article was an enjoyable read, however; it is important to acknowledge when ones own hypothesis may not be accurate. As much as I enjoyed the thought of the Electric Field (part of the Electromagnetic Force), being responsible for the existence of gravity, it can not be true. I came to this understanding when I considered the fact that Neutron stars have gravity, and are composed of almost entirely of neutral particles. No Electric Force means no gravity, and that simply is not the case. Unless somehow free protons and electrons can still sense the proton and electron contained within a neutron, I just don’t see how my hypothesis can work. I have since begun working on a new hypothesis which will be going into a book I am currently writing. I will get an article outlining my new hypothesis on gravity up on ezine soon after.